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Membranous Nephropathy

What is Membranous Nephropathy?

What are the causes of Membranous Nephropathy

What are the symptoms of Membranous Nephropathy?

Tests and exams for diagnosis of Membranous Nephropathy

What is the treatment for Membranous Nephropathy?

What is Membranous Nephropathy?

Membranous Nephropathy is a kidney disorder in which the small blood vessels in the kidneys, which filter blood, become inflammated and thickened. As a consequence, proteins are leaked into urine, thus causing proteinuria. For many, the loss of proteins can eventually cause some signs and symptoms known as Nephrotic Syndrome.

In mild cases, the disease can get remitted by itself without any treatment. In many other cases—approximately 40 percent, however, the disease may lead to kidney failure over periods of time. Early and positive treatment helps the patients with Membranous Nephropathy slow or control the progression of the disease.

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What are the causes of Membranous Nephropathy?

Membranous Nephropathy is the thickening and inflammation to renal filtering glomerular basilar membrane. The condition can be a primary kidney disease of a certain origin, or may be also associated with other conditions. The following increases your chances of membranous Nephropathy:

Autoimmune diseases (e.g., Systemic Lupus Erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc)

Exposure to infections ( e.g., hepatitis B)

Drugs and toxins (e.g,, gold mercury, penicillamine, , ibuprofen, diclofenac, etc)

Tumors (e.g., tumors in digestive or respiratory tract systems, thyroid tumors, etc)

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Symptoms of Membranous Nephropathy

Common symptoms of kidney failure may include:

Symptoms may begin slowly over time, and mainly include:

Edema (swelling) in limbs, eyelids, face, ankles or other parts of the body

Without or with slight blood in urine

Fatigue/weakness

Foamy or bubby urine due to appearance of large proteins in urine

Poor appetite

Excessive urination at night

Weight gain

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Tests and exams for diagnosis of Membranous Nephropathy:

The main sign of Membranous Nephropathy is the loss of proteins, primarily albumin, from the blood into the urine(proteinuria). Healthy individuals have urine output of no more than 50milligram per day. Someone with membranous nephropathy may discharge several hundreds of milligram of proteins each day, up to more than 10g/24h with advanced kidney disease.

Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is performed to determine residual kidney functions. other tests may be done to see how well the kidneys are working, which include blood urea nitrogen, blood creatinine, creatinine clearance test, etc.

Someone with membranous nephropathy may have low albumin levels, and blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels may be high, indicating risks of hyperlipaedemia.

Kidney biopsy confirms renal pathological change for the diagnosis of membranous nephropathy.

The following are the tests that can determine the cause of membranous nephropathy: Antinuclear antibodies test

Anti-double-strand DNA, if the antinuclear test is positive

Blood tests to check for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and syphilis

Complement levels

Cryoglobulin test

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What are the treatments for Membranous Nephropathy?

Routine treatment:

Management of blood pressure. Controlling blood pressure is essential in delaying kidney damage. The goal is to keep blood pressure at 130/80mmHg. ACEI and ARB medicines are most commonly used.

Corticosteroids and other drugs that suppress or quiet the immune system may be applied.

Medications to reduce blood cholesterols and triglycerides may be applied to reduce risks of arteriosclerosis in membranous nephropathy.

Healthy eating habits are also essential. A low-sodium diet is always recommended, and water consumption may be restricted if someone with the disease experiences severe body swelling. A moderate-protein diet (1gram of protein per kilogram per day) may be suggested.

This disease increases risks of blood clotting in lungs and legs in the patients. So blood thinners are sometimes applied so as to prevent those complications.

Medical progression in treatment of membranous nephropathy

Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy

Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy is crated from traditional Chinese medicines. Core technique of the treatment is to make effective herbal prescriptions super-finely shattered, and then with the help of osmosis devices and penetrants, medicine ingredients will permeatrate into kidney lesions effectively.

Treatment principle of Micro-Chinese Medicine Osmotherapy: through dilating blood vessels, resisting inflammations, anti-coagulation and degenerating excellular matrixes, to achieve targeted effects in blocking up renal fibrosis, repairing injured renal intrinsic cells and reconstruct kidney structure.

Immunotherapy----

Hypersensitivity is overdone immune response. Immune complexes are antigen-antibody combined product. In the occurrence of membranous nephropathy, immune complexes are deposited on glomerular basilar membrane. Those immune complexes attract inflammatory factors to gather on kidneys, activate hypersensitivity and impair healthy glomerular filtering cells. Immunosuppressive treatment quiets the immune system, however, the treatment don't help fix damaged kidney cells, and even suppress healthy immune system to make infections more likely to occur. Immunotherapy treatment regulates the immune system, blocks renal inflammation and stops further progression of the disease. Immunotherapy targets at reestablishment of the immune system and improvement of kidney function.

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Membranous Nephropathy Questionnaire

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